Building on our foundation for our future.
October 18-20, 2021 | The Grand Hotel in Point Clear, Alabama
We are back on the road for this year's Annual Conference! Join us at The Grand Hotel in Point Clear for networking and professional development featuring national and industry leaders.
This year's schedule is packed with sessions to help brand yourself, successfully sell your clients' homes, interpret economic data, network with fellow Realtors®, and more.
We have a new registration tool that makes registering for both the conference and your hotel room a breeze!
From Tom Ferry's Jason Pantana to sales expert Pam Ermen, our nationally renowned General Session speakers are industry leaders ready to keep you current on all things real estate.
The historic Grand Hotel, known as the Queen of Southern Resorts, sits on the beautiful Mobile Bay. Enjoy all the amenities The Grand has to offer while attending Annual Conference.
Monday, October 18
Golf Scramble Benefitting the Alabama Realtors® Foundation NEW!
Entry: $399 per two-person team. Each two-person team receives green fees, cart, and brunch. Soda and snacks included during play. Proceeds will benefit the Alabama Realtors® Foundation.
Lakewood Golf Club at The Grand Hotel
Check In: 9:30-10:30am
Shotgun Start (Best Ball): 11:00am
You will need to submit each team member's name and individual USGA handicap information during registration. Only one person needs to register the team.
Kick off the start of our 2021 Annual Conference with light hors d'oeuvres and an open bar. Included with the Annual Awards Celebration & Installation ticket.
Annual Awards Celebration & Installation
Join us as we celebrate our fellow Realtors® who went above and beyond and also install our 2022 Executive Committee. Includes three-course meal and wine.
Awards & Installation Reception Feat. Live Entertainment
Dance the night away with a live band, photo booth and open bar! Included with Annual Awards Celebration & Installation ticket.
Tuesday, October 19
General Session Welcome
Moderator Brian Copeland
About Brand Time!
Nationally renowned speaker Jason Pantana will present marketing and business strategies to win the mindshare of the marketplace and become the agent of choice! Part 2 will feature our own members sharing tips and tricks to boost your brand.
House to Home: Architectural Trends & Staging to Sell
Speaker Ashley Gilbreath
Learn architectural and structural trends to help your buyers visualize the potential in a home, while helping your sellers make the best investments in their home to get the highest ROI when selling.
Buyer Strategies & Referrals
Speaker Jason Pantana
This seminar will cover essential strategies to manage a highly competitive multiple offer market and sphere building strategies to help you master the art of referrals and buyer leads.
Governor Ivey will kick off the luncheon with an update from the State. Nick Sellers will share the anticipated events and expected economic effect as Alabama enters the national stage for the 2022 World Games.
Caught on Camera: Will Your Brokerage Be Next?
Speaker Bill Dedman
Pulitzer Prize winner and investigative reporter Bill Dedman shares his undercover experience exposing racial steering by real estate agents in the 2019 Newsday report Long Island Divided and what you can learn from it.
Economy 360: Interpreting Today's Economic Factors
Speaker Pam Ermen
In this timely and market-sensitive seminar, you’ll LEARN TO EARN by reading market direction long before it arrives! We’ll study the Top 6 Economic Factors affecting your marketplace and how to prepare your buyers and sellers to take appropriate action! We’ll take fuzzy financial data, confusing economic reports and boring stats and turn them into some of the most exciting information you’ve heard in a long time!
Maximizing Your Teamwork
Speaker Tasha Scott
This seminar will cover exciting ways to improve your performance as a leader including: reshaping your team’s potential, increasing your individual impact and influence, elevating individual and group productivity, and improving your team's overall performance.
Controlling Seller Expectations
Today’s connected consumers have an endless resource of information at their fingertips which can often create unrealistic expectations for a seller, especially when it comes to the marketing or pricing of their property. Creating a realistic expectation of the value of their property and the path to its successful sale can be the difference between a satisfied client who tells others about your services and one who believes that you have failed in your ability to sell their home or represent their interests. Learning to tell a seller client what they need to hear vs what they want to hear defines the role of a true trusted advisor who has the knowledge, experience and courage to LEAD, not follow, in a sales transaction! Part 2 will feature our own members sharing their seller experiences and answering questions.
Major Investor Reception (Invitation Only)
This reception is reserved for ARPAC Major Investors.
Dinner on Your Own
Enjoy one of the many on-site restaurants or venture out to try some local cuisine.
Wednesday, October 20
GRI: Knowing Your Market & Market Strategies
GRI Knowing the Market will give REALTORS® the skills needed to gain a thorough understanding of their marketplace, including learning about marketplace trends, neighborhood and property amenities, considerations for housing location & types, developing CMAs and impacts of different data sources, and other ancillary services influencing value. This is a separately ticketed event and is worth 6 hours of CORE GRI credit and eligible for 6 hours of Alabama CE Credit.
Annual Awards Celebration & Installation Dinner/Reception: $149
Guest Fee for Dinner & Reception: $149
General Session Programming:$199
GRI Course: $99
Golf Scramble: $399*/team (two-person team)
*Proceeds to benefit The Alabama REALTORS® Foundation.
You may register for the conference and your hotel room using the link below. After completing conference registration, you will then be directed to book your hotel reservations. Registration deadline is September 17, 2021.
Qualifying Broker, REALTOR®, ABR, CRS, SRES, GRI
House & Home Real Estate
M.S., B.A., CRS, GRI, CIPS, ePRO, ABR, Founder/Owner of Doorbell Real Estate
Brian Copeland is the founder and CEO of Doorbell Real Estate in Nashville, Tennessee. He has appeared on numerous HGTV and The Learning Channel television shows and served as one of Facebook’s Global Community Leadership Council members. He has been one of the most sought after real estate speakers and consultants in the country, emceeing and keynoting some of the largest
conferences in the industry. He has earned spots on T3’s Social Influencers Power List and Inman’s Most Influential List. He has represented Facebook on stage at their Marketing Week Executives’ Meeting in New York City and at the CMX Summit in Los Angeles.
Brian is not only a sales leader and industry influencer, he gives tirelessly in the REALTOR leadership arena. In 2019, he served as the Vice President for Association of Affairs for the National Association of REALTORS. He was the 2017 President of Tennessee REALTORS and was Nashville’s REALTOR of the Year in 2011.
Brian founded and runs one of the largest technology camps in the nation each Spring in Nashville, attracting more than 1500 real estate professionals from 30 states and three continents.
Brian and his spouse live with their two children on a farm where they raise cows, goats, chickens, and alpacas.
Pulitzer & Peabody Award-Winning Investigative Reporter & Bestselling Author
Bill Dedman is a Pulitzer and Peabody award-winning investigative reporter, bestselling author, and keynote speaker. He has spoken on fair housing and fair lending issues to the National Association of Realtors, the Federal Reserve, HUD, and banking and real estate associations.
Bill received the 1989 Pulitzer Prize in investigative reporting for his work at The Atlanta Journal-Constitution on The Color of Money, his series on racial discrimination by banks and savings and loan associations in middle-income Black neighborhoods. The Color of Money led to expanded federal laws on disclosure of loan data, new financing for middle-income homebuyers, and greater awareness of systemic discrimination. The articles in The Color of Money are online at http://powerreporting.com.
Thirty years later, Bill was one of four lead reporters on Newsday's undercover investigation of racial steering by real estate agents, Long Island Divided. The investigation, published in November 2019, revealed that Long Island’s dominant residential real estate brokerages help reinforce racial segregation through illegal steering of customers. Newsday's team received several national awards for their work, including a Peabody Award. Long Island Divided and its 40-minute documentary film, Testing the Divide, are online at http://newsday.com/divided.
Bill also uncovered the case of the reclusive copper heiress Huguette Clark in 2010, documenting her life in reports for NBC News. His nonfiction book, the No. 1 New York Times bestseller Empty Mansions: The Mysterious Life of Huguette Clark and the Spending of a Great American Fortune, tells the true story of Clark and her father, the Gilded Age industrialist who founded Las Vegas. Bill is a frequent speaker for financial-planning groups and charities on the lessons learned from the Clark families failures in estate planning.
Bill has reported for The Associated Press, The Washington Post, The New York Times, and The Boston Globe.
Realtor®, Prestige Properties
Human connectivity is one of the most rewarding elements in life. It has the power to deepen the moment and the bond between people, inspire change and build trust. Being a REALTOR® is rooted in the desire for human connectivity. The art of this skill is what drives Ashley Durham’s real estate business day in and day out.
The real estate business found Ashley in 2006 as a craft that celebrates human connectivity, a career that discovers connections between people and their homes, people and their community, and people with other people. Through her career, Ashley has grown a dynamic team of real estate professionals, all with the same passion of serving people and sharing a multitude of connectivity skills.
Today, Ashley leads the Auburn/Opelika Lifestyle Group at Prestige Properties, a team that sells 200+ homes a year in Lee County, Alabama, and she owns @HOME with Prestige Properties, a company exclusively created to serve Stone Martin Builders, where sales associates connect home buyers with more than 1000 new construction homes each year.
Ashley is passionate about personal growth, new opportunities, and unmatched customer service. Excellence is a requirement and success in that only comes with a village of family, friends, mentors, and colleagues.
Division Vice President, Senior Trainer, and Broker/Owner
Pamela Ermen has spent her entire business career in real estate, obtaining her license at the age of 18! Entering a full time management career by the age of 24, she has spent 25 years coaching individual agents, teams and companies to their highest levels of productivity.
Pam has accomplished highly successful management careers in both a privately owned and franchised branded business model, and has authored two successful training series specific to business planning and the dynamic growth of real estate teams.
Being selected as Real Estate Educator of the Year in her home state is just one of her career milestones, in addition to instructing for numerous state GRI programs and joining the cadre of national (CRS) Certified Residential Specialist program.
Associate Broker, EXIT Realty Lyon
Shulanda Franks, is an Associate Broker with EXIT Realty Lyon. She has been with EXIT Realty Lyon since 2009 and in the Real Estate industry since 1998. Shulanda, has provided stellar services to both home buyers and sellers along the Gulf Coast by bringing a high level of resourcefulness to each transaction. She is highly qualified to handle both residential and commercial Real Estate transactions. Shulanda, has proven herself as a leader in both the Real Estate industry and the community. In 2018, she graduated from Leadership-AAR (Alabama Association of REALTORS®), the Graduate, REALTOR® Institute in addition to earning the certification to teach Real Estate courses in Alabama and as a Certified Distance Education Instructor (CDEI). Shulanda, has also attained the distinguished title of Dr. Shulanda Franks, from the University of Southern Mississippi by earning a Ph.D. in Education and Psychology, in 2015.
Owner of Ashley Gilbreath Interior Design
Ashley is a southern-based interior designer who studied at Auburn University and the New York School of Interior Design. Her fresh take on the industry can be seen in Southern Living, House Beautiful, LUXE, Coastal Living, Country Living, Atlanta Homes & Lifestyle, and in homes from Florida to Connecticut. She is renowned for creating casual, elegant spaces where the family can gather to celebrate everyday living. Her work is thoughtfully and patiently designed to ensure memories are wrapped in a feeling of love, comfort, and beauty.
In 2010, Ashley launched Parish; her first retail store offering curated pieces found around the world. A second Parish store opened in 2019 in Rosemary Beach, Florida.
She is a winner of the Institute of Classical Art and Architecture’s coveted Shutze Award and has been nominated for ADAC’s Southeast Designer of the Year. She currently lives in Rosemary Beach, Florida, with her husband and three children. Faith keeps her going. Family keeps her smiling.
Chief Executive Officer, RealtySouth
Apart from his career launch at Carraway Methodist Health Systems and time spent as partner and Executive Vice President of First Real Estate (who would later merge with RealtySouth), Richard Grimes has spent more than half of his professional life at RealtySouth where in 2015, he accepted the role of CEO. Grimes’s responsibilities at Alabama’s largest brokerage and real estate services company are vast, and his vested interests in the real estate industry stretch well beyond the walls of the company. RealtySouth and its in-house affiliate companies Canopy Title & Closing, InsuranceSouth and Prosperity Home Mortgage are the dominant home-buyer and home-seller services companies in Alabama.
Grimes is a charter member of the Alabama Association of Realtors® Leadership AAR group, served as a Director of the Birmingham Multiple Listing Service, serves as a NAR One Realtor® Place national web site advisory committee member and Chairman of the AAR Education Committee. He holds multiple designations including Certified Residential Specialist, Certified Real Estate Broker Manager, and Accredited Buyer Representative Manager and has served as a liaison with the BARD Business Alliance for Responsible Development, and as a senior Planning and Zoning Commissioner for Jefferson County.
A Birmingham-Southern graduate and REALTOR® for more than two decades, Grimes is also a longtime supporter of the Big Oak Boys and Girls Ranch and proud to have served as Chairman of the Board of Directors. A nod to his passion for aviation, he also serves on the City Board of Directors for the Southern Museum of Flight.
An Alabama native, Richard and wife Holly thoroughly enjoy time with their two beautiful daughters Sarah Grace and Hannah Faith. When not helping with homework or managing the world of real estate, Richard enjoys water skiing, bird hunting, saltwater sport fishing, woodworking and above all other pastimes, flying.
President, Ingram & Associates
As President of Ingram and Associates, Margi Ingram oversees the real estate sales and marketing of new residential communities in the Birmingham area, the Eastern Shore of Mobile/Fairhope and the Opelika/Auburn area.
Primarily focused on residential real estate, Margi specializes in new home communities providing developers with front-end consultation on the best use of land and the right mix of housing product through to the marketing and sales of the homes. She has an expert touch at setting the vision for master-planned communities which is evidenced throughout the state from Ross Bridge in Birmingham to National Village in Opelika to The Colony at The Grand in Fairhope. She also has a successful track record with marketing and selling condominiums with many of Birmingham’s iconic condos falling under her watchful eye from Capri to City Federal to Soho to The Manning and many more!
Her accolades include the 2019 Robert Jemison Award from the Alabama Association of Realtors, Birmingham Business Journal’s 2018 Executives of Influence, Alabama Power Alabama Realtor of the Year, BBJ Business Woman of the Year, Birmingham Association of Realtors Realtor of the Year and Tom Rast Award Winner, and BBJ Top 40 Under 40.
Professionally, she is involved in the leadership and advocacy for local, state and national Realtor associations as a past president of Birmingham Association of Realtors, board member of Alabama Association of Realtors and member of various committees with the National Association of Realtors and the National Association of Homebuilders.She has more than 40 years of experience in marketing and selling residential properties, specializing in new home communities and condominium developments. Margi independently owns and operates Ingram and Associates.
Margi’s accreditations include Certified New Home Sales Professional (CSP); Member Institute of Residential Marketing (MIRM); Certified Residential Specialist (CRS), Certified Marketing Professional (CMP), Resort and Second Home Property Specialist (RSPS) in addition to being a certified Transnational Referral Realtor in the International Consortium of Real Estate Associations.
Margi holds a B.S. degree from the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Her professional and civic associations include:
- Member, Birmingham Business Alliance
- Member, Operation New Birmingham
- Member, The Rotary Club of Birmingham
- Vice President of International Service for the Board of Directors of The Rotary Club of Birmingham
- Member, Birmingham Civil Rights Museum
- Member (past), Executive Women’s Roundtable
- Trustee, New Home Marketing Group of America
- Board of Directors (2007 – 2014), Birmingham Botanical Gardens
- Past President & Board of Directors, United Cerebral Palsy
- Member and Past President, Birmingham Association of Realtors
- Chair (2011), Birmingham Association of Realtors Centennial Committee
- Board of Directors and Member, Alabama Association of Realtors
- Member, National Association of Realtors
- Member, National Resort & Second Home Committee (2008-2011)
- Member, National Association and Birmingham Association of Homebuilders
- Past President of Sales & Marketing Council – Birmingham Association of Homebuilders
- Board of Directors (past), The Charitable Real Estate Foundation for the Community Foundation of Greater Birmingham
- National Association Realtor Emeritus
- Co-Chair – ARPAC – 2016 – 2020, Birmingham Association of Realtors
- Co-Chair - ARPAC – 2021 - Alabama Association of Realtors
- Board of Directors, Alabama Association of Realtors
- Co-Chair Professional Standards Committee – 2021 – Alabama Association of Realtors
Governor Kay Ivey
Governor of Alabama
Governor Kay Ivey, who became the 54th Governor of Alabama in 2017, is committed to raising the quality of life for all Alabamians. A native of Camden in Wilcox County, she embarked on a career of public service to benefit her fellow Alabamians. During her time as governor, Alabama has seen record high employment and its lowest jobless rate. Her focus on economic development has attracted over $14 billion in capital investment and 34,000 new jobs. She is committed to offering economic development opportunities to rural Alabama and the metro regions alike. With the same level of passion, she is leading Alabama toward a more prosperous future through infrastructure investments and an improved education system.
Senior Broker Associate, The Cummings Company
Timothy Mills is a graduate of the University of South Alabama where he earned his Bachelor of Arts Degree in Political Science. He matriculated to Troy University where he earned a Master of Public Administration with a concentration in Public Management. Timothy has been a Realtor® since 2007. He is currently working on the distinct designation of Commercial Certified Investment Member (CCIM). Currently, he’s the Senior Broker Associate with The Cummings Company.
Timothy is a member of the National Association of Realtors® where he was appointed to the National Participation Counsel. He is also a member of the Alabama Association of Realtors® where he serves on the Board of Directors. In addition, Timothy serves as a Trustee for the Alabama Association of Realtors® Political Action Committee. He is a graduate of the Alabama Association of Realtors® Leadership Class of 2019. He serves on the Board of Directors for the Gulf Coast Multiple Listing Service and Allocation Committee. Timothy was appointed and unanimously confirmed in 2020 by the Mobile City Council to the Affordable Housing and Neighborhood Revitalization Commission. He also serves on the Board of Directors for Mercy Life, the only Trinity Health center in the State of Alabama and is formerly the Chairman for the Mobile Area Association of Realtors® Governmental Affairs Committee.
Moreover, Timothy is a proud and dedicated member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc where he serves as the State Oratorical Chairman and President of the Beta Omicron Lambda Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. He is the immediate past District of Alabama Area IV Chief Dean and advisor to the University of South Alabama college chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Incorporated. Timothy has served for the last 25 year as a musician for several local churches. In Timothy’s spare time he enjoys grilling and smoking various types of grub while relaxing by the pool.
Owner/Qualifying Broker, Regina Mitchell Real Estate
Regina Mitchell is the owner and qualifying broker of Regina Mitchell Real Estate and owner and instructor of Madison Alabama School of Real Estate. Regina has over 20 years experience in real estate and property management combined. Prior to pursuing her career in real estate she managed the Grand Reserve Apartments where she served as the property manger over 400 units in Madison Alabama.
Regina was the 2020 National Association of Real Estate Brokers for the Huntsville Chapter, and is on her 2nd 2-year term as a member of HAAR and Valley MLS Board of Directors. Regina is also a member of the AAR Board of Directors as well.
Regina Mitchell is very active in her community and she also servers as an Ambassador for the Madison City Chamber of Commerce.
Coach, Speaker & Trainer for Tom Ferry International
Jason Pantana is a coach, trainer, and speaker for Tom Ferry International, the world’s leading real estate coaching program, as well as host of the popular seminar, Marketing Edge. His dynamic sessions arm professionals with the tools they need to stay current, competitive, and, above all, successful.
Formerly the education director for a leading national real estate franchise, Jason creates tailored sessions for a range of professionals. His areas of expertise include social media strategy, digital marketing, and developing an eye for emerging business trends. He’s provided clear paths for companies, both large and small, to roll out powerful advertising campaigns through the use of Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Google, and other mass online platforms.
Jason has gained thousands of social media followers through his many effective engagements. His energetic style engages his audiences — in individual, team, and conference settings alike — while readying them to utilize the ever-changing marketing tools of today.
Jason lives with his wife and family in Nashville, Tennessee.
Senior Vice-President of Business Development, Roberts Brothers, Inc. Instructor for the Academy of Real Estate
“Your success is my highest reward. Assisting in your development and growth as a successful real estate agent is what I do each day… and I love doing it!” Anne Powell
Anne is the Senior Vice-President of Business Development for Roberts Brothers, Inc. and an instructor for the Academy of Real Estate. She specializes in real estate education, consulting, motivational training, and coaching. Anne attended Spring Hill College and has a Bachelor of Science degree in Economics and a Master of Arts in Teaching. She has taught real estate courses in multiple states and is an instructor for the GRI program. She has also taught a variety of designation courses including SFR® and SRES®. Anne assisted in writing the outlines for the Post License course, the 60 Hour Prelicense Broker course, and the Risk Management CE courses for Brokers and Salespersons for the state of Alabama. She has taught at major conferences for AAR and for many local Associations throughout our state.
Anne’s practical real estate experience began over 30 years ago. As a Broker, Anne more than doubled her office gross commission dollars over a 2 ½ year period. She continues to assist agents in growing their business and being outstanding professionals.
Through her teaching, Anne has had the opportunity to connect personally with her students, and she takes great interest in their steps toward success. She loves the challenge of creating the best learning environment possible for her agents. Her courses and coaching have assisted many agents, salespersons, and managers in moving their business to the highest level of success while enjoying their career in real estate.
Sloane Rhoden, a Birmingham resident and native, is a REALTOR® with RealtySouth.
Sloane selects attributes and characteristics from her previous jobs in retail, mortgage and appraisal to create her specific voice and curate an experience for her clients. She believes in story-telling and the impact of video, practices these beliefs, and teaches classes on video for REALTORS® region-wide.
Sloane is currently serving on the Birmingham Association of REALTORS® Board of Directors. She has served as a local committee chair (Professional Development & Young Professionals Network), Alabama REALTORS® Board of Director, NAR Committees, and is a 2018 Graduate of the BAR Leadership Academy.
In Sloane’s spare time, you will find her cooking, gardening, practicing yoga or as a patron of the local Birmingham fare.
Sloane received her Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Alabama in Finance & Marketing and has been a REALTOR® member since 2013.
Independent Executive Director, John Maxwell Team
Tasha M. Scott is an Independent Executive Director with the John Maxwell Team. Her responsibilities include Executive Leadership Training, Coaching, and Keynote Speaking nationally and internationally.
She is also a Certified D.I.S.C. "Personality Assessment" Consultant under the Maxwell brand. In addition, Tasha owns Maximized Growth, LLC where she serves nonprofits, state agencies, and for-profit businesses of all sizes through workshop facilitation, leadership training, team development, and executive coaching.
Tasha also serves numerous educators, including the Alabama State Department of Education, through customized courses and training programs specific to leadership, communication, and personal growth.
She is a graduate of Leadership Montgomery, Class XXXIII, and was recently selected as a member of Leadership Alabama, Class XXXI. Tasha thrives on helping individuals and organizations bridge communication gaps that lead to progressive growth.
Chief Executive Officer, 2022 World Games
Nick Sellers has deep roots in sports and service to the State of Alabama. And he brings that experience and passion to bear in his leadership on loan from Alabama Power as CEO of The World Games 2022.
As former Chairman of the Alabama Sports Council, he led a board that oversaw the growth of several regional and national sporting events including the SEC Baseball Tournament, the Magic City Classic, and the Davis Cup Birmingham.
After beginning his career in sports marketing and as an advisor to the Governor of Alabama for economic development and policy, Nick joined Alabama Power in 2003 where he has held management positions both at Alabama Power and Southern Company including executive leadership of Business Origination, Project Management & Construction, Division Vice President, and Vice President of External & Regulatory Affairs.
In addition to the Alabama Sports Council, his other previous community involvement includes serving on the boards of the Bryant-Jordan Scholarship Foundation, Birmingham-Jefferson Convention Complex, and Board Emeritus member of the Alabama Sports Hall of Fame.
After earning his undergraduate from the University of the Pacific in Stockton, California, Sellers went on to earn his Juris Doctor from the Birmingham School of Law. He resides in Birmingham with his wife and three children.
Alabama Realtors® has a block of rooms available for attendees at a discounted rate at The Grand Hotel.
Rates are as follows:
Rate expires after September 17, 2021.
Room reservations will be made during the registration process. If you need to modify your existing reservation, visit the registration page, and click on "Already registered?" to log in and make any necessary changes. Or you can contact Melissa Williams at (334) 262-3808 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Alabama REALTORS® Annual Conference Refund/Cancellation Policy
All Annual Conference cancellation/refund requests, including hotel reservations, must be made no later than Friday, September 17, 2021, at 5:00 p.m. There will be no refunds after this date. All hotel cancellations/modifications must go through Alabama REALTORS®. Even if a hotel reservation is canceled with the hotel directly after September 17, no refunds will be issued nor charges waived by AAR.
Thank you to our Title Sponsor.